BA LL.B (Hons.) 5 Year IV Environmental Studies  



Module – I            Introduction to Environmental studies

  1. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
  2. Scope and importance; Need for public awareness

Module – II           Ecosystems

  1. What is an ecosystem?
  2. Structure and function of ecosystem;
  3. Energy flow in an ecosystem: food chains, food webs and ecological succession.
  4. Case studies of the following ecosystems : a) Forest ecosystem b) Grassland ecosystem c) Desert ecosystem d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

Module – III         Natural Resources: Renewable and Non-renewable Resources

  1. Land resources and land use change; Land degradation, soil erosion and desertification.
  2. Deforestation: Causes and impacts due to mining, dam building on environment, forests, biodiversity and tribal populations.
  3. Water: Use and over-exploitation of surface and ground water, floods, droughts, conflicts, over water (international & inter-state).
  4. Energy resources: Renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources, growing energy needs, case studies.

Module – IV         Biodiversity and Conservation

  1. Levels of biological diversity : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity; Bio-geographic zones of India; Biodiversity patterns and global biodiversity hot spots
  2. India as a mega-biodiversity nation; Endangered and endemic species of India
  1. Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts, biological invasions; Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
  2. Ecosystem and biodiversity services: Ecological, economic, social, ethical, aesthetic and Informational value

Module – V          Environmental Pollution      

  1. Environmental pollution : types, causes, effects and controls; Air, water, soil and noise pollution
  2. Nuclear hazards and human health risks
  3. Solid waste management: Control measures of urban and industrial waste.
  4. Pollution case studies.

Module – VI         Environmental Policies & Practices

  1. Sustainability and sustainable development.
  2. Climate change, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acid rain and impacts on human communities and agriculture
  3. Environment Laws: Environment Protection Act; Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act; Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act; Wildlife Protection Act; Forest Conservation Act.
  4. Nature reserves, tribal populations and rights, and human wildlife conflicts in Indian context.

Module – VII        Human Communities and the Environment

  1. Human population growth: Impacts on environment, human health and welfare.
  2. Resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected persons; case studies.
  3. Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclones and landslides.
  4. Environmental movements: Chipko, Silent valley, Bishnois of Rajasthan.
  5. Environmental ethics: Role of Indian and other religions and cultures in environmental conservation.
  6. Environmental communication and public awareness

Suggested Reading: 

  1. Bharucha, E. 2003, Textbook for Environmental Studies, University Grants Commission, New Delhi and Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environmental Education and Research, Pune. 361.
  2. Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962), Mariner Books, 2002
  1. Economy, Elizabeth. 2010. The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China’s Future.
  2. Gadgil, M. & Ramachandra, G. 1993. This fissured land: an ecological history of India. Univ of California Press.
  3. Gleeson, B. and Low, N. (eds.) 1999. Global Ethics and Environment, London, Routledge.
  4. Grumbine, R. Edward, and Pandit, M.K. Threats from India’s Himalaya dams. Science 339.6115 (2013): 36-37.
  5. Heywood V.H. & Watson, R.T. 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press.
  6. McCully, P. 1996. Silenced rivers: the ecology and politics of large dams. Zed Books.
  7. McNeill, John R. 2000. Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth Century.
  8. Odum, E.P., Odum, H.T. & Andrews, J. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
  9. Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P. & Brusseau, M.L. 2011. Environmental and Pollution Science. Academic press, 2011.
  10. Rao MN and Datta AK, 1987. Waste Water Treatment. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
  11. Raven, P.H., Hassenzahl, D.M. & Berg, L.R. 2012. Environment. 8 th edition. John Wiley & Sons.
  12. Ricklefs, R. E., & Miller, G.L. 2000. Ecology. W. H. Freeman, New York.
  13. Robbins, P. 2012. Political ecology: A critical introduction. John Wiley & Sons.
  14. Rosencranz, A., Divan, S. & Noble, M.L.. Environmental law and policy in India. 2001. Tripathi 1992.
  15. Sengupta, R. 2003. Ecology and economics (OUP): An approach to sustainable development.” OUP Catalogue.
  16. Singh, J.S., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment and Resource Ecology, Environment and Resource Conservation. Anamaya Publishers.
  17. Sodhi, N.S., Gibson, L. & Raven, P.HG. (eds). 2013. Conservation biology: voices from the Tropics. John Wiley & Sons.
  18. Van Leeuwen, C. J., & Vermeire, T. G. 2007. Risk assessment of chemicals.
  19. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.